WHAT IS GPAT AND WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT SUBJECTS AND EXAMINATION DETAIL?
The National Testing Agency (NTA) conducts the Gpat exam for admission to M.PHARMA or equivalent courses. The scores are accepted by 800 participating institutes and the All India Council of Technical Education( AICTE) approved Institutions and Universities,approx. 50,000 candidates take the test every year. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test ( GPAT ) is one of the entrance exams conducted by the NTA. The Gpat exams are conducted in english only. The duration of the Gpat exam is 3hrs. The total number of objective type question are 125. Each question carries 4 marks. A total of 4 marks will be awarded for each correct response. The paper is divided into several subjects such as pharmaceutical science, physical chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, and pharmaceutical management.
Availability of application forms: 13th, February 2023.
Last Date of the application forms: 6th, March 2023.
Starting of Application Correction: 7th – 9th, March 2023 .
EXAMINATION DATE TO BE ANNOUNCED LATER
IMPORTANT BOOKS NAME FOR EACH SUBJECT.
i) Biochemistry by Lehninger or by Satyanarayan
ii) Health Education and Community Pharmacy for 1st year diploma by N.S Parmar
iii) Advance Organic Chemistry: reaction mechanism & structure by Jerry March
iv) Physical Chemistry by Dr R.R Misra
v) Pharmaceutics by Aulton
vi) Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis by B.K.Sarma
vii) Industrial Microbiology by Cascida
viii) Textbook of Pharmacognosy by K.Kokale
HOW TO SCORE GOOD MARKS IN GPAT?
As a part of the GPAT preperation, candidates should set themselves a schedule. This will enable them to complete the syllabus 2 months before the exam. Aspirants who are serious about cracking the GPAT exam must prepare a strategy in advance because based on merit admission is given to students, as there is high level of competition. one should have to study for atleast 4-4.5 hours everyday to gain capability on each subjects. So to score good marks and to crack your exam you can join GPLUS EDUCATION which is the best Institute in Kolkata for GPAT.
SCORING TOPICS IN GPAT:
Drug classification, Mechanism of action, , etc (Mostly you can follow: Anticancer, Antibiotics, Antifungal, Antiprotozoal, Cardiovascular Drugs), Adverse effect- related with a name like Gray baby syndrome, Diuretics, CNS depression, Antihistamines.
Capsule, Parenterals, Surfactant, Carr’s index, Hausner ratio, Angle of repose, Emulsion, Fick’s law, Tablet ( Mostly Coating, instrument, and excipients), Zeta Potentials, Preservatives, artificial sweetener dose calculation sums elf-life and half-life, vol of distribution & plasma conc, rate of clearance, one and two-compartment model sums, AUC- Dose fraction -as i.v or oral; Bioavailability calculation, Rheology (Nonnewtonian’s flow) HLB Values.
Newman and sawhorse projection, Aldol Condensation, Baeyer-Villiger, Claisen Condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, IUPAC (Bicyclo, Spiro, and heterocyclic compounds), Name reaction ( Diels- Alder Reaction, Knoevenagel, Optical and Geometrical isomerism. R, S / E Z, /Conformational isomerism, Reimer Tiemann, Pericyclic reaction.
Vibration range for different grs); IR( Sampling technique, molecular vibration, NMR (No of signal calculation, Chemical shift), Mass Spectroscopy (types of peak, use) Gas chromatography (Detectors, Use), Woodward-Fieser Rule, HPLC ( Instrumentation, use); Lambert’s Law-Beer’s law, UV Absorption Band & shift.
Drug classification of (Sedative hypnotics, Antibiotics, Antimalarial, Morphin, Antihistaminic); SAR (Mostly Diuretics, BZDs, Morphin); IUPAC Name of Steroidal drugs, Synthesis ( Thiazide Diuretics, Phenothiazine, Quinine, BZDS, Antihistaminic ).
Chemical constituents & use of Ergot, Nux Vomica, Microscopic Character (Senna, Digitalis, Aloe, Clove, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Belladonna, Vinca); Belladonna, Clove, Kurchi, Vasaka, Digitalis, Biosynthesis Pathway, Tissue Culture, Chemical test (glycoside and alkaloids most important), Sources of Drugs; Classification of Drugs; Opium, Senna, Aloe, Clove, Cardamom, Cassia, Cinnamon, Ispaghula, Peru & Tolu balsam, Myrobalan, Arjuna, Asafoetida, Pale &black catechu.
WHAT ARE ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME?
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are medications that helps to loosen up the arteries and veins to the lower blood pressure which inhibitors avoid an enzyme in the body from producing angiotensin II, a substance that narrows blood vessels. Angiotensin II also releases hormones that boost blood pressure. Signal of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are diabetic nephropathy, evolving myocardial infarction, scleroderma crisis (Scleroderma renal crisis is a life-threatening complication of scleroderma and presents with the abrupt onset of severe hypertension accompanied by rapidly progressive renal failure, congestive heart failure, and/or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia) hypertensive encephalopathy. In Pregnant women angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are contraindicated.
WHAT IS DIURETICS?
A diuretic is any substance that improves diuresis, the expanded production of urine. Low dose therapy with the category of antihypertensive drugs has been found to be more helpful in the long-term than high dose therapy with the diuretics drugs. Diuretics causes the kidneys to make urine and helps the body to get rid of extra fluid and salt. They are used to treat high blood pressure, edema (extra fluid in the tissues), and other conditions. Diuretics acting on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle are the most efficacious in developing salt and water excretion because the reabsorptive capacity of the segments distal to it is limited. A high ceiling diuretic ethacrynic acid is practically not used because it is more ototoxic, it causes diarrhoea and gut bleeding and its response increases steeply over a narrow dose range. Hydroflumethiazide diuretic reduces positive free water clearance but does not affect negative free water clearance. At equi natriuretic doses acetazolamide diuretic causes the maximum K+ loss. the Primary mechanism by which antidiuretic hormone reduces urine volume is increased water permeability of collecting duct cells.
WHAT IS NIFEDIPINE?
Nifedipine are soft gelatin capsule calcium channel blocker that should not be used in patients with ischaemic heart disease. It is most likely to produce tachycardia as a side effect. The cardiac response to verapamil and nifedipine in human subjects are that verapamil causes bradycardia while nifedipine causes tachycardia. The functions of Nifedipine are it can inhibit insulin release from pancreas it can aggravate urine voiding difficulty in elderly males with prostatic hypertrophy and at high doses it can paradoxically increase the frequency of angina pectoris. The antihypertensive action of calcium channel blockers is characterized by lack of central side effects, no compromise of male sexual function and Safety in peripheral vascular diseases. Higher incidence of myocardial infarction and increased mortality has been noted with the use of the nifedipine antihypertensive drug. The long acting calcium channel blocking drugs as antihypertensives are as effective as diuretics or β blockers in reducing cardiovascular/total mortality. Short acting nifedipine formulation is not recommended now for treatment of hypertension because it tends to increase heart rate and cardiac work, it invokes pronounced reflex sympathetic discharges and It can impair haemodynamics in patients with diastolic dysfunction. Use of sublingual/oral nifedipine soft gelatin capsule for rapid BP lowering in hypertensive urgency has been discarded because of inability to control the rate and extent of fall in BP and reports of adverse/fatal outcome. Sublingual/oral nifedipine has been abandoned for rapid lowering of BP in hypertensive urgency/emergency.
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTINUOUS RELEASE SYSTEMS?
The characteristics of continuous release systems is that they prolong their residence in the GIT and release. Prolonged their residence in the GIT and release is the characteristic of delayed transit and continuous release systems.
WHAT IS EMULSIONS?
Mixture of two or more liquids( oil and water) in which one is present as droplets, of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size, distributed throughout the other is known as emulsions. Types of emulsions are:
i) Oil in water (O/W): The example for o/w emulsion is milk.
ii) Water in oil (w/o): The example for w/o emulsions are cold cream, butter, paint,
O/W emulsions usually show creaming in an upward direction.
The emulsion test is a method used to determine the presence of lipids using wet chemistry.
Conductivity test, Dye test are some of the tests of emulsions, Due solubility test, Fluorescence test, Cobalt chloride test, Formation of creaming, Dilution test..
Multiple emulsions are the complex polydisperse systems where both oil in water and water in oil emulsion exist simultaneously which are stabilized by lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants respectively.
WHAT IS FICK'S LAWS?
Fick's laws states that the rate at which a molecule moves through a material is corresponding to the concentration gradient i.e. the difference in concentrations between the two ends of the material; and inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane.
Vgas = D*(P1-P2)*A/T
D = diffusion coefficient
(P1-P2) = partial pressure gradient
A = surface area
T = thickness of barrier
WHAT ARE HLB VALUE?
The higher the HLB number(scale image), the more Hydrophilic the surfactant is. 15–18 is the HLB value for solubilizing agents. 8–16 is the HLB value for O/W emulsifier. 7–9 is the HLB value for wetting agents. 3-6 is the HLB value for W/O emulsifiers.
Calculation of HLB value:
- HLB values of surfactants based on polyhydric alcohol fatty acid esters such as sorbitan monooleate, glyceryl monostearate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate may be estimated as HLB = 20(1-S/A) where, s =saponification number of the ester and a =a acid number of the acid.
- For materials whose hydrophilic region is polyoxyethylene, the HLB value is calculated as HLB = Ɛ (hydrophilic group numbers) − Ɛ (lipophilic group numbers) + 7.
WHAT IS BUFFER SYSTEM?
A buffer system is a solution that can refuse pH changes when short amounts of an acid or base are added to it.Types of buffer solution:
- Acidic buffer
- Basic buffer
For acidic buffers pH is lower than 7.
For basic buffers pH is more than 7.
pH of a basic buffer = pKa – log ([salt]/[acid]).
Buffer capacity (β) is defined as the moles of an acid or base necessary to change the pH of a solution by 1, divided by the pH change and the volume of the buffer in liters.
Histidine is the most effective contributor of protein buffers. A buffer shows its maximum buffer capacity when pH = pKa. Borate buffer is not used systematically but used in ophthalmic preparation. NH4 is a conjugate acid in the (NH4OH + NH4Cl) buffer system.
WHAT IS ZETA POTENTIAL?
A physical property that is exhibited by any particle in suspension, macromolecule or material surface is known as Zeta potential. The value of zeta potential will decrease when electrolyte is added. Maximum sedimentation volume is obtained when the zeta potential is zero.
WHAT IS ANGLE OF REPOSE?
The angle that the plane of connection between two bodies makes with the horizontal when the upper body is just on the point of sliding is known as angle of repose. Granules with a rough surface will have a high angle of repose.
Formula for angle of repose:
𝝧 = tan-1 h/r
𝝧 = angle of repose
h = is the height in (cm)
r = is the radius in (cm)
Flow property based on angle of repose:
Flow property Angle of repose (in degree)
Fair- aid not needed 36-40
Passable- may hang up 41-45
Poor- must agitate, vibrate 46-55
Very poor 56-65
Very, very poor >66
WHAT IS AN IR?
The band width in IR Increases due to H bonding. Homo molecular molecules are IR inactive because the dipole moment does not change during vibration. FT IR instrument contains monochromator, gratings are covering entire IR range and Quartz made prism acts as monochromator. Conjugation of C=C with C=O lower the frequency of C=O bond in the IR spectrum. In IR, a pyroelectric detector is constructed from triglycine sulphate. Gratings are generally preferred over prisms for dispersive IR because better resolution is possible, linear dispersion is achieved and gratings are resistant to attack by water. The grating in the IR spectrophotometer is made up of alkyl halides. The most commonly used mulling reagent in IR is nujol. 800 nm–2.5 μm wavelength regions are used for near IR. The wavelength of mid-IR is 4000–25000 nm. Hooke's law is associated with IR. IR photo conducting detectors can be constructed from lead sulfide, lead telluride and mercury cadmium telluride. Interference is the basic principle of FT-IR. Polystyrene is used in calibration of IR instruments.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY IR RADIATION?
For calibration of wavenumber scale in IR polystyrene film is used. For obtaining IR radiation nernst filament should be heated to 1000–1800 °C. Asymmetric stretch requires the most energy in IR. Lasers are nowadays used as radiation source in visible and IR regions because it emits highly monochromatic light, emits coherent light and little or no spreading of radiation as it propagates. SiC rod heated to a high temperature is used as source of light in IR. The IR spectrum of an organic liquid can be taken by placing it between a pair of polished plates which is made of NaCl and KBr. Pressed disk techniques for the sample preparation in IR involve the use of KBr. Oxygen–hydrogen bonds show the strongest absorption in the IR.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY IR SPECTROSCOPY?
CO2 is not identified by IR spectroscopy because CO2 has no dipole moment although C=O is polar. Mostly used region for IR spectroscopy is Mid-IR. Thermal detectors that are used in IR spectroscopy are thermocouple, bolometer and golay pneumatic detectors. IR spectroscopy is generally used to determine the functional group. The solvent used in IR spectroscopy are chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide. C–H stretching of aldehyde In IR spectra is 2850–2750 cm–1. CS2 or CCl4 solvent is normally used in IR spectroscopy. Prism coated with NaCl will be used for IR spectroscopy. % T vs wave number is the normally graph plotted in IR spectroscopy. In IR Spectroscopy the changes in electronic energy is always associated with charges in vibrational, rotational and translational. Tungsten–halogen lamp is most widely used radiation source in visible spectroscopy. Molecule must show change in dipole moment to become IR active in I.R. spectroscopy. Wavelength used in X-ray diffraction spectroscopy is 0.01 to 10 nm.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY IR SPECTRA?
In IR spectra, alkyne has a characteristic peak at 2150 cm-1 in IR spectra –NH2 with formula C2H7N shows 3423 cm–1 and 3236 cm–1. Aldehyde: 1740–1720, Amide: 1680–1630 and Acid chloride: 1800 are the frequency range (in cm–1) in IR spectra for different groups containing (–C=O). 1660–1720 is the frequency range (in cm–1) for the carbonyl group of lactam rings in IR spectra. In IR spectra, alkene have C=C stretching at 1680–1620 cm–1. The C=O bond in the IR spectrum of acetic anhydride gives peak at 1760 and 1810 frequency (in cm–1). 1o alcohol> 2o alcohol> 3o alcohol> phenols is the right frequency (cm–l) order for O–H bond IR spectrum. In IR spectra, alkyne has characteristic peak at 2150 cm–1.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY NMR?
NMR signal is obtained in 1,4-dioxane 1 peak. A reference compound used in NMR spectroscopy is trimethylsilane. The delta value for TMS in NMR is 0. Radiofrequency radiation is associated with NMR. Number of NMR signals generated by acetone is 1. The unit of magnetic field strength in NMR is Gauss. The solvent commonly used in NMR IS Carbon tetrachloride. Position of signal in NMR spectrum indicates the electronic environment of each kind of proton. 2,2-dimethy-l,2-silapentane-5-sulfonate is used as an internal reference standard for aqueous solution in NMR. Intensities in the NMR spectrum indicate the relative number of protons of each kind. Wavelength used in the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) is 1010 nm to 1012 nm. Magic angle NMR is carried out at 54.7 angle. The number of signals in the NMR spectrum indicates the number of different kinds of protons present in different environments. Splitting of signal in the NMR spectrum indicates the number of neighbouring protons present. Allyl alcohol has 5 NMR peaks. The C13 NMR spectrum of an unknown compound shows 4 absorptions and the H1 NMR spectrum shows 4 absorptions. therefore,
is the unknown compound. DMSO-d6 is a universal solvent in NMR. Presence of electronegative atoms on NMR spectra causes deshielding and downfield. Coupling causes the peaks in 1H NMR spectra to be split Into multiple peaks equal to the number of hydrogen on surrounding atoms, plus one. Environmental effects that occur in NMR are chemical shift and chemical exchange. CH3–CH2–NH2 gives 3 signals in NMR spectroscopy. Benzene gives 1 NMR signal. in the NMR spectrum two peaks are shown by diethyl ether. The radiation source used in NMR spectroscopy is the radiofrequency source transmitter. In NMR studies carbon tetrachloride solvent is used. Cyclobutane has 1 NMR signal. In NMR greater the deshielding of protons, larger the value of δ or smaller value of τ. 2-bromo propene gives 3 NMR signal. Proton NMR is useful for investigating the structure of organic compounds because Hydrogen atoms are found in nearly all organic compounds. CDCI3, DMSO-d6 and deuterated benzene are used to record NMR spectra.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY CHROMATOGRAPHY?
The most commonly used detector in liquid chromatography is UV. In anion exchange chromatography counter ion has positive charge. In gel filtration chromatography larger molecules are eluted first. Acetic acid > Ethanol > Acetone > Petroleum ether is the correct order of the retention in a mixture of four compounds in normal phase chromatography. The stationary phase used in gel permeation chromatography is styrene divinylbenzene copolymer. Sephadex is used for exclusion chromatography. The parameter in the elution curve that is proportional to the concentration of a compound in gas chromatographic effluent is the area under the peak. The mobile phase used in ion exchange chromatography is buffer solutions. In reverse phase chromatography least polar compound is most retained. Hexamethyl silane is used to reduce tailing in gas chromatography. In gas chromatography the sample must be in Gas state. In gas chromatography, derivatization is desirable to improve the thermal stability of compounds and introduce a detector oriented tag into the molecule. In size exclusion chromatography styrene is used as a stationary phase.The mobile phase in column chromatography acts as a solvent for sample and developer and as eluent. The separation of components because of distribution of components between two immiscible liquid phases occurs in paper chromatography. In chromatography if column length is constant and the height of the theoretical plate decreases, then Column separation efficiency increases. In chromatography compound X has retention time 10.5 min and peak width is 0.7 min and compound Y has retention time 15.5 min and peak width is 0.4 min then resolution is 9.09. The principle of paper chromatography is Partition. Steroid separation is by paper chromatography the paper used is acetylated paper. In chromatography capacity factor is related to the migration rate of solute. In radial paper a chromatography sample is placed at the centre of the paper. In TLC silica-G is used as coating material ‘G’ means Gypsum and used as a binder. RP-HPLC method contains stationary phase is non-polar and mobile phase is polar.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY WOODWARD-FIESER RULE?
As per Woodward–Fieser rule 244 nm is the absorption maxima (λmax).
As per Woodward–Fieser rule 302 nm is the absorption maxima (λmax).
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY LAMBERT'S LAW-BEER'S LAW?
LAMBERT LAW-BEER LAW states that the amount of energy consumed by a solution is corresponding to the solution's molar absorptivity and the combination of solute.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY CHEMICAL SHIFT IN NMR?
Chemical shift in NMR states the difference between the resonant frequency of the spinning protons and the signal of the reference molecule. Unit of chemical shift is parts per million (ppm). CH3F has the highest chemical shift (PPM)value. Chemical shift does not depend on applied external magnetic field, Dimensionless and is expressed in ppm. 100 ppm solution = 100 μg/ml.
Spinning is an important step in the pinhole method of capsule preparation, and it is used for Uniform distribution of gelatin and removing air from the surface of pins. Slugs of powder are filled in capsules by the capsule filling machine Farmatic Model 2000/160. Storage temperature of the capsule shell is 100 deg F. The humidity condition required for the storage of the capsule shell is 12-15% is. Capsule dosage form is not suitable for extremely soluble drugs. Gelatin for hard capsules are obtained from pork skin and bones. For Aqueous liquid Soft gelatin capsules are suitable. The smallest capsule size is 5. During capsule shell formation, the pinhole method differs from the centrifugal method in dipping. Dosator type is a noise free capsule filling machine. The Hoflinger machine is used to fill the thixotropic liquids in a hard gelatin capsule. Moisture content present in hard gelatin capsules is 13.0%-16.0% w/w. Solubility limits for empty capsules in case of water resistance fails to dissolve in water at 20-30°C in 15 min. During manufacturing, Soft gelatin capsules are washed with hexane. The plasticizers in making soft gelatin capsules are used in preparation of 20 to 30 % of wet gel formulation. Syntron vibrator is used to measure the diameter of the capsule. As per IP 20 capsules are taken in a weight variation test. Vehicle used in the soft gelatin capsule (SGC) is PEG. Volume capacity of the ‘000’ size capsule is 1.37 ml. A non-animals gelatin capsule has been developed with pullalan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Solubility of gelatin capsules is decreased by formalin. Bloom strength of gelatin capsule is directly proportional to solubility of gelatin. Hard gelatin capsule of size 3 will accommodate approximately 0.3 volume in ml. Vacuum drying methods are commonly used in the pharma industry for drying of soft-shell capsules. By addition of sorbitol the shells of soft gelatin capsules made elastic or plastic like. Ratio of dry glycerine to dry gelatine for hard capsules should be 0.4. An isoelectric point for type A gelatin capsule is at pH 9. Disintegration time of hard gelatin capsule is 30 min. Disintegration time of the soft gelatin capsule is 60 min. Size 000 capsule contains 1.37 volume of drug. Acid Solubility of empty capsules dissolved in less than 5 min in 0.5% aq. HCl at 36 to 38°C. Water resistance of empty capsules fails to dissolve in water at 20° to 30° C in 15 min. Typical Fill Weights (mg) 0.70 powder density of size 5 is 90. The Accogel machine fills dry powder in a soft gelatin capsule. Filling of pellets in capsules is done by Rotofil. Filling of liquid in capsules is done by Qualiseal. The storage temperature for soft gelatin capsule shell is 21–24°C. Auger filling, Vibratory principle and dosator principle are the filling principles in the capsule filling machine. Plate process is not continuous for filling of soft gelatin capsules. 5–5000 µm is the approximate particle size of a microcapsule using solvent evaporation. Type A gelatin exhibits an isoelectric point at pH 9. The 3 size of capsule will have 0.30 ml capacity. Capsules size 1 accommodates the highest volume. More alkaline products in soft gel capsules can cause tanning. Empty capsules of gelatin should be handled at 30–45 %RH. Vericap works on the principle of dielectric constant and removes the unfilled capsules. Empty capsule has moisture content in the range of 12 - 15%. Capsules are suitable for moisture sensitivity. Aerogel ills powdered dry solid into a soft gelatine capsule. Rotofil is designed for filling of pellets. Sealing of the capsule is achieved by heating at 37 - 40ºC. Rate limiting step in bioavailability of capsule is disintegration. Valproic acid capsules if chewed will cause irritation of the mouth and throat. capsule size 5 has the smallest capacity. “000” represents capsule size. Sealing of the capsule is achieved by heating at 37 - 40°C. Capsules are suitable for moisture sensitive drugs. For hard gelatin capsules 0.4 : 1 is the ratio of dry glycerin and gelatin. Base adsorption in capsules helps in determining amount of liquid absorbed by a drug. Properties of mixture on which smaller size of capsule will depend is lower base absorption and higher density.
Parenteral products are considered to be those sterile drugs and solutions, emulsions and suspensions. Parenteral products are unique from any other type of pharmaceutical dosage because here all products must be sterile, must be free from pyrogenic (endotoxin) contamination and Injectable solutions must be free from visible particulate matter. Advantage of parenterals are administration of unconscious patients, can not take oral administration and are free from pyrogen. Disadvantages of parenterals are requirement of trained personnel for administration, real or psychological pain associated with the injection and is highly risky if any mistake happens at any point. Sublingual is not a parenthetical route of administration. Vehicles used for parenteral formulation are Water, Water-miscible vehicles and Non-aqueous vehicles. The most important Water-miscible vehicles used in parenteral formulation are ethyl alcohol, liquid polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The most commonly used complexing agent in parenterals is Cyclodextrins. Concentration of benzalkonium chloride in parenterals is 0.01%. Electrolytes, monosaccharides and disaccharides are the most commonly used tonicity agents in parenterals. The limulus test is a rapid in-vitro method for pyrogen testing in parenterals. A parenteral solution that is preferably administered by hypodermoclysis is lactated potassic saline injection. In parenterals, Water attack test is used for Type -2 glass. For the quality testing of parenteral pyrogen test, total organic content and conductivity test are necessary. Oily solvents used for parenteral are Cotton seed oil, Sesame oil and Ethyl oleate. Bulking agent used for parenteral preparation is Sorbitol.
DISSOLUTION AND CONTROLLED RELEASE SYSTEMS:-
The characteristic of dissolution controlled release systems is that it has a very slow dissolution rate. The characteristic of matrix dissolution-controlled release systems is that it employs waxes to control the rate of dissolution.
Hollow systems containing drugs surrounded by a polymer membrane are the characteristics of reservoir devices-controlled release systems.
Diffusion of the dissolved drug is the characteristic of diffusion-controlled release systems.
First order release system:
Matrix dissolution controlled release
Matrix diffusion controlled release
Noyes Whitney Equation;
dC/dt = k(Cs-Cb)
dC/dt = dissolution rate of the drug,
k = dissolution rate constant, i.e. DA/L (D is the diffusion coefficient, A is the surface area of the solid and L is the diffusion layer thickness).
Cs = concentration of drug in the stagnant layer, and
Cb = concentration of drug in the bulk of the solution at time t.
Nernst and Brunner incorporated Fick’s first law of diffusion and modified the Noyes-Whitney’s Equation to:
dC/dt = DAKW/O (Cs-Cb)/Vh ………….(2)
d = diffusion coefficient of drug
a = surface area of dissolving solid
KW/O = water/oil partition coefficient of drug
v = volume of dissolution medium
h = thickness of stagnant layer
(Cs-Cb) = conc. gradient for diffusion of drugs.
GMP validation is an element of a quality assurance program for a pharmaceutical/biotech product or process. To ensure that the products are absolutely fit for intended use, the company has to demonstrate in a documented form that the processes, methods, tests, activities and equipment they deploy are capable of repeatedly producing the desired product.
The validity can be established using following studies:
Types of Validation are:
Computer System Validation
Life Cycle of GMP Validation are:
Validation master plan
Execution of validation
Low concentrations of heparin selectively interfere with the intrinsic pathway. Low doses of heparin prolong with activated partial thromboplastin time. Induction of a configurational change in antithrombin III to expose its interacting sites of heparin is essential for inhibition of factor Xa. Functions of heparin are sudden stoppage of continuous heparin therapy causes rebound increase in blood coagulability, high doses of heparin inhibit platelet aggregation and Heparin clears lipemic plasma in vivo but not in vitro. Low molecular weight heparins differ from unfractionated heparin as they selectively inhibit factor Xa, they do not significantly prolong clotting time and they are metabolized slowly and have longer duration of action. The advantages of low molecular weight over unfractionated heparin are less frequent dosing, higher and more consistent subcutaneous bioavailability and laboratory monitoring of response not required. Low dose subcutaneous heparin therapy is indicated for the prevention of leg vein thrombosis in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Heparin is contraindicated in patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis and large malignant tumours. Protamine sulfate can be used to antagonise the action of heparin in case of overdose. The primary mechanism by which heparin prevents coagulation of blood is facilitation of antithrombin III mediated inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin.
WHY GPLUS EDUCATION IS BEST PLATFORM FOR GPAT COACHING?
GPLUS Education is the best platform for GPAT Coaching as well as No.1 Coaching Institute in Kolkata as we all know that Gplus is a trusted name/ brand in the field of Higher Education.
GPAT also known as Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test is an Annual Examination which is conducted all over India. This test is conducted by NTA and is conducted in CBT (computer based test) mode only. If one is planning to crack GPAT He / She must join an excellent GPAT tutoring platform i.e. GPLUS EDUCATION which is the best GPAT Institute in Kolkata. This platform should broaden your knowledge about subjects and the expert faculties will teach you shortcuts for quick learning which will help you during your examination times. Not only this it also provides tabloid study materials, and takes the best mock test series for GPAT so that students can gain confidence.
GPLUS Education is different from other education companies because it is the only company that combines learning with entertainment by using the latest technology in content creation & animation. GPLUS Education makes learning interesting & engaging which has a positive effect on students outcomes, that's why we say that GPLUS Education is the best Institute for GPAT in India.
At last we can say that students and guardians have every reason to believe that GPLUS will leave no stone unturned to create a succcessful future of deserving candidates.
EXAM PATTERN OF GPAT:
|MODE OF EXAM||ONLINE|
|EXAM DURATION||3 HOURS|
|TOTAL NO. OF QUESTION||125|
|TYPE OF QUESTION||MCQ|
|MARKS PER QUESTION||4 MARKS|
+4 FOR EVERY CORRECT RESPONSE.
-1 FOR EVERY INCORRECT RESPONSE.
To Improve your performance you can join GPLUS EDUCATION ,the best Coaching Institute for GPAT in Kolkata.